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Our Languages

Albanian

Albanian constitutes a language branch in itself. A member of the Indo-European family stemming from the Illyrian language, it is not intimately related to any other language. Albanian is spoken in Albania, Kosovo, Southern Montenegro, Southern Epirus, Western Macedonia, South-Western Serbia, the Peloponnese, Attica and parts of Southern Italy. Between 8 and 13 million people speak it as a first language and there are very few speakers of Albanian as a second or foreign language.

Gjuha shqipe është një degë e vecantë, që nuk ka lidhje me gjuhët e tjera dhe i përket trungut te gjuheve indoeuropiane. Gjuha shqipe ka dalë nga ilirishtja dhe flitet në Shqipëri, Kosovë, ne Jug të Malit të Zi, në Epirin e Jugut, ne perëndim te Maqedonise, në Jug – Perëndim të Serbisë, në Pelopones, në Attikë dhe në disa pjesë të Italisë së Jugut. Gjuha shqipe flitet prej rreth 8-13 milion njerëz si gjuhë e parë dhe pak e flasin si gjuhë të dytë.

Arabic

Arabic (al-luga al?arabiyya or lugatu-d?d?a¯d) is a Central Semitic language spoken in the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Originating in the Arabian Peninsula, Arabic is presumed to have evolved from Nabatean, Syrian or Aramaic and was spread through the expansion of the Islamic religion after the VI century.
Approximately 422 million people worldwide – both Moslem and Christian – speak Arabic, which includes three varieties: Classical Arabic (the language of the Islamic religion); Standard Arabic (official language, news, documents, etc.) and colloquial Arabic (different dialects). Spoken both in the Arabian world and in several Asian and African countries, Arabic was adopted as one of the six official languages of the United Nations in 1974.

Bulgarian

Chinese

Danish

Danish is an East Norse language of the North Germanic family. It is spoken in Denmark, Iceland, Greenland, South Schleswig, and on the Faroe Islands. Due to its similarities with these languages, Danish is widely understood by speakers of Swedish and Norwegian. Approximately 6 million people speak Danish as a native tongue, while about 6,000 people worldwide are learning it as a foreign language.

Dansk er et østnordisk sprog, som tilhører den nordgermanske sprogfamilie. Sproget tales i Danmark, Island, Grønland, Sydslesvig og på Færøerne. Dansk ligner svensk og norsk rigtig meget og bliver for det meste også forstået af disse sprogbrugere. Dansk tales af ca. 6 millioner mennesker som modersmål, og anslået lærer omkring 6000 mennesker dansk som fremmedsprog.

English

English, a Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, is spoken by approximately 360–400 million L1 (native) speakers.
While English-speaking countries are to be found in Europe, North America, Africa and Australasia/Oceania (all present or former British territories), English has become the global lingua franca of science, business, international affairs, culture and inter-cultural communication.
Depending on the criteria applied to defining an English speaker, there are up to two billion English speakers worldwide.

Farsi

Persian (Farsi) is the most important Indo-European language of Central and South-Western Asia. It is the/an official language in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan. In addition to 60-70 million native speakers, Persian is spoken as a second language by another 50 million people.

Finnish

Finnish is a Baltic Finnish language which belongs to the Finno-Ugric language family. It is spoken by approximately 6 million people. Around 4.9 million inhabitants of Finland speak Finnish as a native tongue, in addition to another half million who speak it as a second language. Outside the country’s borders, Finnish is spoken in Sweden, Norway and in the Russian republic of Karelia.

Suomen kieli on itämerensuomalainen kieli, joka kuuluu suomalais-ugrilaisten kielten ryhmään. Suomea puhuu maailmassa noin 6 miljoonaa ihmistä. Suomessa äidinkielenään suomea puhuvia on noin 4,9 miljoonaa ja reilut puoli miljoonaa puhuu suomea toisena kielenä. Suomen ulkopuolella suomen kieltä puhutaan Ruotsissa, Norjassa ja Venäjän Karjalan tasavallassa.

French

French is a Romance language of the Indo-Germanic family. There are approximately 80 million native speakers of French worldwide. Out of the 274 million French speakers in 50 countries on all continents, around 212 million speak the language on a daily basis. The official language of 19 states and one of the official languages of another 29, French is truly a world language. It is widespread in Europe (in France, Belgium, Switzerland, Luxembourg and Monaco) and is one of the working languages of the institutions of the European Union and of numerous international organizations, like NATO, OECD, UN, UNESCO, the International Olympic Committee, FIFA, etc.

Le français est une langue indo-européenne de la famille des langues romanes. La langue française fait figure de langue officielle sur tous les continents et compte environ 274 millions de locuteurs, dont environ 80 millions de natifs et 230 millions l'utilisant quotidiennement. Le français, qui est très présent en Europe (France, Suisse, Belgique, Monaco, Luxembourg) est également une langue de travail de nombreuses organisations : Commission européenne, Conseil de l'Europe, OTAN, OCDE, UNESCO, ONU; FIFA.

Greek

A member of the Indo-Germanic family of languages, Greek constitutes a language branch in and for itself. It is spoken by approximately 13 million people in Greece and Cyprus. Australia, Canada, the US and other states recognise Greek officially as a minority language. About 25 million people worldwide speak Greek as a first or second language.

Hebrew

The official language of the state of Israel, Hebrew is a Semitic language which belongs to the Afro-Asian language family. In Israel and in Jewish communities around the world, it is spoken as a native language by approximately 5.3 million people and as a foreign language by a further 4 million.

Hindi

Hindi is an Indo-Germanic language spoken in most North and Central Indian states. It has been adopted as one of India’s official languages on September 14th, 1949. With more than 600 million first and second language users in India and the neighboring regions, Hindi is ranked third among the world’s most spoken languages, behind Chinese and English.

Italian

Italian belongs to the Romance branch of the Indo-European language family. It is the (or one of the) official language(s) of Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and the Vatican. Furthermore, it is an officially recognized minority language in regions of Slovenia and Croatia. The Slovenian communities of Isola d’Istria/Izola and Pirano/Piran, as well as the Croatian peninsula of Istria are officially bilingual. Moreover, Italian is also the official language of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (the Maltese Order).
Worldwide there are approximately 70 million native speakers of Italian, with another 130 million speakers of Italian as a foreign language.

L'italiano è una lingua neolatina e appartiene alla famiglia delle lingue indoeuropee. È la lingua ufficiale dell'Italia,[8] di San Marino,[9] della Svizzera,[10] della Città del Vaticano e del Sovrano Militare Ordine di Malta,
L´italiano è lingua ufficiale anche a livello regionale in Croazia e in Slovenia. Nei comuni sloveni Capodistria/Koper, Isola d’Istria/Izola e Pirano/Piran e nella parte croata dell´Istria esiste il bilinguismo
È parlato da circa 70 milioni di persone come lingua madre, mentre circa 130 milioni lo conoscono come 2° lingua.

Japanese

Japanese is an agglutinative language whose origins are not clearly established. It has a very simple syllable structure; the writing system consists of two syllabaries – Hiragana and Katakana – and the Chinese Kanji characters.
Japanese is spoken by more than 125 million people around the world – primarily by the inhabitants of Japan, but also by populations of Japanese origin in Hawaii, as well as in North and South America.

Korean

Korean belongs to the Ural-Altaic family of languages and is spoken by approximately 78 million people in South Korea, North Korea, China, Japan and the US.

Due to Korea’s increasing economic and political importance in North-East Asia, Korean is growing increasingly popular around the world as a foreign language.

Croatian

Croatian belongs to the South-Slavic languages, a sub-group of the Indo-Germanic family of languages. Its native speakers reside in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (where it is one of the official languages), Australia, America, Germany, Austria and many other countries. A total of approximately 6.2 million people speak Croatian around the world.

Hrvatski je jezik jedan od južnoslavenskih jezika. Zajednica slavenskih jezika pripada indoeuropskoj jezicnoj porodici. Hrvatski je materinski jezik Hrvata u Hrvatskoj, pa i Hrvata u drugim zemljama, u Australiji, Americi, Njemackoj, Bosni i Hercegovini (ovdje je i jedan od službenih jezika) i mnogim drugim državama. Njime govori ukupno oko 6,2 milijuna ljudi.

Kurdish

Dutch

Dutch is a West-Germanic member of the Indo-Germanic family of languages. It is spoken by approximately 24 million people worldwide, more than 23 million of whom live in Europe: 16.8 million in the Netherlands and 6.5 million in the northern half of Belgium (Flanders). Outside Europe, Dutch is one of the official languages of Suriname, where it is spoken by around 400,000 inhabitants. Additionally, a minority of Dutch speakers still exists on some islands of the Lesser Antilles: Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, Sint Eustatius and Sint Maarten.
While both Dutch and German use separate words to designate variants of the language (‘Nederlands’ / ’Niederländisch’ for the language; ‘Hollands’ / ‘Holländisch’ for western dialects; ‘Vlaams’ / ‘Flemisch’ for the North Belgian dialect), English only differentiates between ‘Dutch’ for the language used in the Netherlands and ‘Flemish’, for the variant spoken in Flanders. The vernacular often even erases all differences by using ‘Dutch’ for each and all variants.

Afrikaans is not a variant of Dutch, but rather an independent language. It is one of the official languages in South Africa and a recognised minority language in Namibia. A so-called ‘daughter language’ of Dutch, Afrikaans evolved from XVII century Dutch.
In the Dutch province of Friesland, most inhabitants speak one of the Friesish languages as a first language, namely Westlauwersfriesisch.
Dutch is taught to more than 15,000 students at approximately 175 universities in 40 countries. About 15,000 learners are attending Dutch courses at non-university-affiliated institutions.

Nederlands is een West-Germaanse taal en behoort tot de Indo-Europese taalfamilie. Wereldwijd spreken ca. 24 miljoen mensen Nederlands, meer dan 23 miljoen van hen woont in Europa: 16,8 miljoen in Nederland en 6,5 miljoen in de noordelijke helft van België (Vlaanderen). Buiten Europa is Nederlands een van de officiële talen in Suriname, waar ca. 400.000 inwoners Nederlands spreken. Bovendien spreekt een minderheid op enkele eilanden van de Kleine Antillen Nederlands: op Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, Sint Eustatius en Sint Maarten.
In de omgangstaal wordt Nederlands vaak Hollands genoemd. Hollands is echter de benaming van de dialecten die in het Westen van Nederland (m.n. in de provincies Zuid- en Noord-Holland) worden gesproken.
Vlaams is geen eigen taal, maar de naam van de variëteit van het Nederlands die in Vlaanderen wordt gesproken.

Afrikaans is geen variëteit van het Nederlands, maar een eigen taal. Het is een van de officiële talen in Zuid-Afrika en een minderheidstaal in Namibië. Afrikaans is een zogenoemde dochtertaal van het Nederlands, het is ontstaan uit het 17e-eeuwse Nederlands.
In de Nederlandse provincie Friesland spreekt een meerderheid een van de Friese talen als moedertaal, en wel het Westlauwers Fries.
Aan ca. 175 universiteiten in 40 landen studeren meer dan 15.000 studenten Nederlands. Aan niet-universitaire instellingen volgen ongeveer 400.000 mensen een cursus Nederlands.

Norwegian

Austrian Sign Language

Polish

Polish is a West-Slavic language, the official language of Poland and one of the official languages of the European Union. After numerous waves of emigration since the beginning of the XIX century, around 10 million people speak Polish around the world in addition to the approximately 38 million of speakers who reside in Poland. The largest Diaspora communities are located in Germany, France, Canada, Brazil and Ukraine. Though it is difficult to estimate how many people are learning Polish worldwide, the number of people who sit the examination for the certificate of Polish as a foreign language suggests that numbers are increasing continuously.

Jezyk polski nalezy do grupy jezyków zachodnioslowianskich, jest jezykiem urzedowym w Polsce oraz jednym z jezyków urzedowych Unii Europejskiej. Mówi nim okolo 38 milionów osób w Polsce, szacunkowo dalsze 10 milionów osób rozproszonych po calym swiecie (liczne fale migracyjne datujace sie od poczatku XIX wieku). Najwieksze skupiska polonijne znajduja sie w Niemczech, USA, Francji, Kanadzie, Brazylii i na Ukrainie. Choc trudno oszacowac liczbe osób uczacych sie jezyka polskiego jako obcego na swiecie, wiadomo, iz stale ona wzrasta (liczba osób przystepujacych do egzaminu certyfikatowego z jezyka polskiego jako obcego).

Portugese

Portuguese belongs to the Romance branch of the Indo-Germanic family of languages. It is an Ibero-Romance language, as are Spanish, Catalan and other idioms of the Iberian Peninsula. Portuguese is the mother tongue of 240 million people; a further 30 million worldwide speak it as a foreign language. Thus, Portuguese is sixth in the worldwide ranking of languages by number of speakers.Eight countries have Portuguese as (one of) the official language(s): Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe, Angola, Mozambique and East Timor.

O português é uma língua romãnica da família linguística do indo-germânico. Ela forma com o espanhol, o catalão e outros idiomas da península ibêrica o grupo linguístico denominado por línguas ibero-romãnicas.
240 milhões de pessoas têm o português como língua materna, e outros 30 milhões falam-no como língua estrangeira.
A língua portuguesa é línuga oficial em oito países, nomeadamente em Portugal, no Brasil, em Cabo Verde, em Guiné-Bissau, em São Tomé e Príncipe, em Angola, em Moçambique e em Timor-Leste. O Português encontra-se em sexto lugar na lista das línguas mais faladas em todo o mundo.

Rumanian

Part of the sub-group of East-Romance languages, Romanian belongs to the Neolatin branch of the Indo-Germanic family of languages and is the official language of Romania and Moldova. Approximately 24 million people speak Romanian as a first (L1) language .
Romanian communities around the globe comprise a total of 30–34 million L1 and L2 speakers.

Limba româna apartine ramurii romanice (neolatine) a limbilor indo-germanice, face parte din sub-grupa limbilor est-romanice si este limba oficiala a statelor România si Moldova. Este vorbita ca prima limba (L1) de circa 24 de milioane de vorbitori nativi.
Comunitatile române de pe Glob (exceptând România si Moldova) însumeaza aproximativ 30-34 de milioane de vorbitori L1 sau L2 (limba româna ca limba principala, respectiv ca a doua limba).

Russian

A member – together with Ukrainian and Belorussian – of the East-Slavic language group, Russian belongs to the Indo-Germanic family of languages. It uses the Cyrillic alphabet. With its approximately 260 million speakers (2014), 137.5 million of whom speak it as a first language (2014), Russian is the most widely spoken language in Europe and is counted among the world languages.

Swedish

Swedish is a North-Germanic language of the Indo-Germanic family. It is the/an official language in Sweden and Finland; in the latter, Swedish is spoken primarily in the autonomous province of Åland and in the coastal regions. Historical language enclaves in Estonia and Ukraine are almost extinct, while, on the other hand, Norway and Denmark are home to Swedish-speaking minorities.
Swedish, Norwegian and Danish are so closely related as to permit mutual intelligibility.
Of the approximately 11 million worldwide speakers of Swedish, about 8.5 million are native speakers. More than 200 universities outside Scandinavia offer courses of the Swedish language.

Svenska är ett nordgermanskt språk som tillhör de indoeuropeiska språken. Svenskan är det officiella språket i Sverige och Finland och talas i Finland framför allt i den autonoma provinsen Åland och i kustområdena. De historiska språköarna i Estland och Ukraina är så gott som utdöda, däremot finns det svensktalande minoriteter i Norge och Danmark. Svenska, norska och danska är så nära besläktade att ömsesidig begriplighet föreligger.
Svenska språket talas av ca. 11 miljoner människor i världen varav 8,5 miljioner har svenska som första språk. Utanför Norden undervisas svenska vid fler än 200 universitet.

Serbian

Serbian is a South-Slavic language of the Indo-Germanic family. Approximately 7 million people speak the language in Serbia and its neighboring countries, while a total of around 12 million speak it around the globe, especially in communities in Europe, America and Australia.
Serbian uses both the Cyryllic and the Latin alphabet and has two pronunciation variants: ekavian and ijekavian.

Slovak

Slovak is a West-Slavic language of the Indo-Germanic family. It is spoken by approximately 5 million people in Slovakia and another 2 million abroad. Slovak is especially well represented in North America, where more than one million people speak this language, but also in Slovakia’s neighboring countries.

Slovencina je západoslovenským jazykom a patrí do jazykovej rodiny indoeurópskych jazykov. Po slovensky hovorí cca. 5 miliónov hovoriacich na Slovensku a približne 2 milióny hovoriacich v iných krajinách. Najväcší pocet užívatelov slovenciny je v Severnej Amerike (1 milión hovoriacich) a v susedných krajinách Slovenskej republiky.

Slovene

A South-West-Slavic language of the Indo-Germanic family, Slovene is spoken as a first language by approximately 2 million people in Slovenia. Around a half million residents of other countries speak Slovenian as a second or foreign language – primarily in Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as Italy.

Slovenšcina spada med južnoslovanske jezike in je eden redkih indoevropskih jezikov, ki je ohranil dvojino. Govori ga 2.000.000 maternih govorcev in približno 500.00 tujih govorcev, predvsem v Avstriji, Madžarski, Hrvaški, Srbiji, Bosni in Hercegovini ter Italiji

Spanish

Spanish is a Romance language of the Indo-Germanic family and is the official language of 21 states: Mexico, Columbia, Spain, Argentina, Peru, Venezuela, Chile, Ecuador, Guatemala, Bolivia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Paraguay, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Puerto Rico, Uruguay and Equatorial Guinea. Approximately 470 million people around the world speak it as a mother tongue, with a further 90 million speakers of Spanish as a foreign language, of whom 21 million are studying the language.

El español o castellano es una lengua románica perteneciente a la familia de las lenguas indoeuropeas. Es la lengua oficial de 21 países: México, Colombia, España, Argentina, Perú, Venezuela, Chile, Ecuador, Guatemala, Bolivia, Cuba, República Dominicana, Honduras, Paraguay, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, Guinea Ecuatorial. Unos
470 millones de personas tienen el español como lengua materna. Alrededor de
90 millones de personas lo hablan como lengua extranjera, de los cuales unos
21 millones son estudiantes del idioma. En 2015, casi 470 millones de personas tienen el español como lengua materna.
A su vez, el grupo de usuarios potenciales de español en el mundo (cifra que aglutina al grupo de dominio nativo, el grupo de competencia limitada y el grupo de aprendices de lengua extranjera) alcanza casi los 559 millones."

Czech

The Czech language (in Czech: ceský jazyk or ceština) belongs to the West-Slavic branch of the Indo-Germanic family of languages.

Around 12 million people speak Czech as a first language, approximately 10 million of whom reside in the Czech Republic, where it is the official language. The branch of linguistics which deals with the Czech language is called Bohemian Studies (Czech Studies).

Ceský jazyk neboli ceština patrí k západoslovanské vetvi rodiny jazyku indoevropských.
Ceštinu užívá zhruba 12 mil. lidí jako materštinu, pres 10,4 mil. z nich žije v Cesku, kde je ceština úredním jazykem. Od 1. kvetna 2004 je ceština jedním z úredních jazyku EU. Veda, která se zabývá ceským jazykem, se nazývá bohemistika.

Turkish

Mit insgesamt mehr als 85 Millionen MuttersprachlerInnen in der heutigen Türkei und in der EU sowie in den ehemaligen Ländern des Osmanischen Reiches stellt Türkisch eine führende Position in der Gruppe der Turksprachen der ural-altaiischen Sprachfamilie dar.
Die Zahl der ZweitsprachlerInnen weltweit wird auf etwa 20 Millionen geschätzt, nicht zuletzt wegen der Präsenz ihrer verwandten Sprachen in ganz Asien, wie z.B. Aserbeidschanisch, Usbekisch, Turkmenisch, Kirgisisch, Kasachisch und Uighurisch.

Bugün Türkiye, AB ve Osmanli Imparatorlugu’nun eski ülkelerinde ana dil olarak 85 milyondan fazla insan tarafindan konusulan Türkçe, Ural-Altay dil ailesinin Türk Dilleri grubunda basi çeken önemli bir konumdadir.
Nihayet dünya üzerinde ikinci dili Türkçe olanlarin sayisi da, bütün Asya kitasinda yaygin olarak konusulan Azerice, Özbekçe, Türkmence, Kirgizca, Kazakça ve Uygurca gibi akraba dillerin varligindan yola çikilarak yaklasik 20 milyon olarak tahmin edilmektedir.

Hungarian

Hungarian belongs to the Finno-Ugric branch of the Ural language family. Approximately 15 million people speak Hungarian as a mother tongue or as a heritage language worldwide, most of whom live in Hungary (around 10 million) and in its neighboring countries (Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, Ukraine, Austria, Croatia and Slovenia). Hungarian is the largest non-Indo-Germanic language in Europe.

A magyar nyelv az uráli nyelvcsalád finnugor ágához tartozik. Világszerte 15 millió ember beszéli a magyart anyanyelvként vagy származási nyelvként. A legtöbben közülük Magyarországon (közel 10 millióan) és a szomszédos országokban (Romániában, Szlovákiában, Szerbiában, Ukrajnában, Ausztriában, Horvátországban és Szlovéniában) élnek. A magyar a legnagyobb nem indoeurópai nyelv Európában.